& Transition Planning
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the legal requirements in IDEA for transition?
Student Notification and Participation: IDEA requires
that for students, beginning no later than age 14, one of the purposes
of the annual meeting will always be a discussion of transition
service needs. Beginning at least by age 16, the discussion will
focus upon planning for needed transition services. The school shall
invite a student of any age with a disability to attend the IEP
meeting if the purpose of the IEP meeting will be the consideration
of transition services. This may include discussing what the student
wants for his or her future, what needs or challenges are perceived
as barriers to reaching student goals, and what accommodations and
supports will support student efforts. This reflects the importance
of self-determination for the student in conjunction with the shared
responsibility of agencies and personnel in attaining the student’s
long-and short-term goals. If the student does not attend the IEP
meeting, the public agency shall take other steps to ensure that
the student’s preferences and interests are considered.
Parent Notification and Participation: Parents
must be notified that the purpose of the IEP meeting will be to
develop a statement of transition services needs for their son or
daughter, who is also invited to attend the meeting. Beginning at
age 16, or younger, if appropriate, this notification must also
include any other agencies that will be invited to send a representative.
Ensuring that parents are informed in advance gives them an opportunity
to prepare for discussion about the future. Informing parents that
their child will also be invited provides them with the opportunity
to talk with their child prior to the actual meeting. With an understanding
that outside agencies may be invited, families can begin to think
about what services they may need, want, and how to include additional
Agency Notification, Participation, and Responsibility:
IDEA also requires that the school invite a representative of any
other agency that is likely to be responsible for providing or paying
for transition services. This reflects the value of long-term, child-centered
coordination and shared responsibility. School staff need to be
knowledgeable about the services and policies of community agencies
in order to invite the appropriate people. Some of the possible
agencies may include: vocational rehabilitation, employment and
training, mental health, mental retardation/developmental disabilities,
social security, housing, recreation, and others relevant to the
individual’s needs and preferences.
If an agency does not attend, the school shall take other steps
to obtain the participation of the agency in the planning of transition
services. If the agency fails to provide the transition services
described in the IEP, the school must reconvene the IEP team to
identify alternative strategies to meet those objectives. Nothing
in this part relieves any participating agency, including a state
vocational rehabilitation agency, of the responsibility to provide
or pay for transition services that they would otherwise provide
to students with disabilities who meet their eligibility criteria.
The financial responsibility for meeting a student’s transition
goals are not meant to apply solely to the education system, but
also to the agencies that the IEP team involves in meeting the transition
objectives set out in the IEP.
Content of the IEP: IDEA final regulations state
the importance of three core concepts:
- The involvement and progress of each student with a disability
in the general education curriculum;
- The involvement of parents and students, together with general
and special education personnel, in making decisions to support
each student; and
- The preparation of students with disabilities for employment
and other post school outcomes.
The actual IEP document includes:
- present level educational performance—may include information
as it relates to post school goals and information from families,
employers, and others;
- statement of transition service needs (age 14)—generally
based on such factors as transition assessment, environmental
barriers, and future adult goals;
- statement of needed transition services (age 16)—may
include instruction, related services, community experiences,
the development of employment and other postschool adult living
objectives, and if appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills
and functional vocational evaluation;
- annual goals—generally based on long-term future adult
goals (using assessment information and adult goals);
- short-term objectives or benchmarks—are measurable and
represent steps to meet annual goals;
- statement of interagency responsibilities—generally includes
information about who will provide needed transition services
outside of the local education agency;
- statement of participation in state and district-wide tests—describes
the modifications in the administration of these tests that the
student will need. If a test is not appropriate for the student,
the IEP must state why the test is not appropriate and how the
student will be tested instead; and
- list of special education and related services—to be
provided to or on behalf of the child, including supplementary
aids and services, modifications to the educational program, and
supports for school personnel, such as training or professional
development, that will benefit the student.
Transfer of Rights: In a State that transfers
rights at the age of majority, beginning at least one year before
a student reaches the age of majority under State law, the student’s
IEP must include a statement that the student has been informed
of his or her rights, if any, under Part B of the Act, that will
transfer to the student on reaching the age of majority. In addition,
parents must be notified that all rights will transfer to their
What is the difference between “transition service needs”
and “needed transition services”?
When IDEA was reauthorized in 1997, transition was a major focus.
Research and practice supported the importance of early planning.
Prior to 1997, the law required that addressing transition services
and needs would begin at age 16. The intent of starting the process
at age 14 was to engage teachers, families, and youth in the process
of looking toward the future at middle or junior high school and
to plan academically for the courses that would be needed throughout
the high school years in order to fulfill a youth’s future
adult goals (Storms, O’Leary & Williams, 2000).
What must happen at age 14 and what must happen at age 16 can be
confusing because the wording in the first two items is so similar.
The following excerpt from Transition
Requirements: A Guide for State, Districts, Schools, Universities,
and Families (Storms, O’Leary, & Williams, 2000) further
clarifies the difference between transition service needs and needed
IDEA ’97 requires that the student’s IEP include:
- A statement of transition service needs
at age 14 or younger, if appropriate.
- A statement of needed transition services
at age 16 or younger, if appropriate.
For all students, starting at age 14 (or younger, when appropriate)
and continuing until the student is no longer eligible for special
education services, the IEP team must:
- Invite the student to participate in his or her IEP development.
- Base the IEP on the student’s needs, taking into account
the student's preferences and interests.
- Can include developing the student’s post-school goals.
- Identify the student’s transition service needs.
Generally, these “transition service needs” take the
form of courses of study or a multi-year description of coursework
to achieve the student’s desired postschool goals. The transition
service needs are intended to assist the student in making a successful
transition to his or her goals for life after high school by selecting
courses that are pertinent to the student's future and motivate
the student to finish school. The requirement for transition service
needs must be reviewed annually and continues until the student
graduates with a regular high school diploma or is no longer eligible
for IDEA ’97 services.
For all students, starting at age 16 (or younger, when appropriate)
the IEP team must:
- Invite the student to participate in his or her IEP development.
- Base the IEP on the student’s needs, taking into
account the student's preferences and interests.
- May include refining the student’s desired postschool
- Review the student’s transition service needs, such
as the courses of study or multi-year description of coursework,
adjusting them as needed to achieve the student’s desired
- Develop a statement of needed transition services.
A statement of needed transition services has been required since
1990. Transition services include "instruction, related services
(added in IDEA ’97 Final Regulations), community experiences,
the development of employment and other postschool adult living
objectives; and if appropriate, acquisition of daily living skills
and functional vocational evaluation.” (IDEA, 34 CFR 300.29(a)(3))
In addition, the statement of needed transition services must
include, “a statement of the interagency responsibilities
or any needed linkages.” (IDEA, 300.347(b)(2))
What are some of the basic foundations of adolescent development
that should be considered as transition planning occurs?
Supporting youth to plan for the future and to reach their adult
goals includes fostering a sense of hope, sense of the future, and
helping them stay connected to school so they will remain in school.
Youth development and prevention strategies have looked beyond the
legal and educational goals to provide a holistic approach to education
Blum, McNeely, and Rinehart cite ten strategies to foster connections
between youth and their schools (2002):
- Help youth get to know each other
- Involve youth in planning, problem-solving, and assessing classroom
- Promote cooperation over competition
- Build strong relationships between youth and teachers/administrators
- Convey attentiveness to youth and passion about learning through
- Involve all youth in responsibilities
- Integrate responsibility and respect throughout all curricula
- Give youth a stronger voice
- Involve youth in the criteria by which their work will be assessed
- Use first person plural (we, us, let’s) to reinforce
the concept that ‘we are all in this together.'
There are many institutions, programs, and researchers who are
involved in youth and adolescent development, working for positive
results in the lives of all youth. Although each may list slightly
different words to define essential elements, there is uniformity
in concepts. Youth need:
- academic skills and competencies
- a sense of safety and structure
- self-worth and self-esteem
- a feeling of mastery and future
- belonging and membership
- responsibility and autonomy
- self-awareness and spirituality
(Center for Youth Development and Policy Research, 2003)
Youth also need motivational, emotional, and strategic supports
to succeed in life. They must experience opportunities to learn
about their world, explore ideas and interests, and believe they
belong to their school and local communities and have something
to give back that makes a difference. They also need meaningful
services that engage them in education, health, employment, and
more by using relevant instruction. In addition, they need caring
support from adults, and challenging opportunities to express themselves
and to take on new roles within groups (Center for Youth Development
and Policy Research, 2003; Ferber, Pittman, & Marshall, 2002;
University of Minnesota, 1999; Carnegie Corporation of New York,
1995; Simpson, 2001; America’s Promise-The Alliance for Youth,
There are many educational reform strategies and standards-based
educational reform goals for all children and youth. Some special
educators and families think about transition as an addition to
these initiatives, an extra set of goals and objectives from state
and local standards and assessment requirements. How can they be
interconnected and viewed as a single, comprehensive strategy in
preparing youth for adult life?
Think about transition as a way to gather and document information
for each student that is part of the standards-based reform. Standards-based
education is an outcome-based process with a goal of improving outcomes
for all children and youth and raising the expectations of all.
Transition for special education youth is also an outcome-based
process that supports students in reaching their adult goals. Transition
assessment and planning may involve teaching functional skills for
daily living and helping youth to learn what accommodations work
for them in the classroom. Some youth will only need support from
a special educator to accommodate or modify a curriculum, and will
be in general education 100% of the time. Some may be in special
education, community, or vocational-based programming a large part
of the day, increasing their academics through applied, contextual
learning. No matter what program or service is provided, it can
be referenced to the standards for all youth.
Start with the end goal in mind. What is the expected outcome for
education? If a specific student’s goal is to enter a four
year college to study nursing, then the educational program will
focus on academic skills in general education. The transition needs
of independent living skills, career and job development, recreation
and community participation will be learned within the context of
those academic courses or as part of the student’s involvement
in a community/vocational learning opportunity. The transition goals
and academic standards can be met both in activities at the school
and outside the school. They should be documented on a student profile
and on the IEP. Conversely, if the individual goal is to increase
self-help and independent skills, or build job awareness, then the
IEP and services may address an academic standard in reading through
the job experience or a standard in math through a carpentry class.
The importance is that the individual goal for the student be aligned
with the academic standards set for all youth within the school.
Parent involvement in the IEP planning process is required by IDEA.
The amendments of 1997 strengthen the importance of parent involvement
and require documentation of parent notification and attempts at
gathering information from parents before an IEP is developed to
address transition. What are the ways to increase parent involvement
in transition planning?
Parents will be actively involved if the environment is welcoming
and their input is heard, respected, and acted upon. They will need
accurate and honest information ahead of time and presented in a
manner that is understandable. Additional skills may include training
in communication, collaboration, and advocacy.
The first thing to think about when developing policies and practices
for increasing family involvement is to assess school climate and
attitude toward family involvement. Ask the following questions:
- Do staff and administrators believe that families have valuable
information to share and are experts on their own children?
- Do schools develop ways to invite families into the building
for events, and also for feedback on policies, curricula, and
- Is there a physical place in the school in which families can
meet with other families, school staff, or adult agency members?
- Are teachers provided with education on how to work with families
and given the time to communicate on a regular basis?
Parents and families often have a lot of emotion with regard to
the transition planning process and having a child with a disability.
This emotion will often surface during meetings. Staff who are comfortable
with this emotion promote a comfort level for families.
Families frequently may not participate in IEP meetings, because
they do not understand the information presented, nor do they sense
that they have anything to contribute. Clear, accurate, family-friendly
information about transition is usually very helpful at times like
these. In addition, information about the impact a disability can
have on learning, continuing education, working, having relationships,
and developing autonomy is also very helpful. Schools can establish
an ongoing parent group that meets for support and also for information.
Including families in site-based councils, transition interagency
committees, special education advisory committees, and any other
school planning committees increases their knowledge of specific
content areas, and also of the school and district-at-large.
Parents and families also need skills in how to communicate, collaborate,
and advocate for their child. If they have access to ways of increasing
those skills, either through a formal class or a program that matches
parents with parents, it will support their active involvement.
For many, if a parent is a good advocate for his or her child, it
creates a “them versus us” relationship with professionals.
Yet when professionals view themselves as advocates and parents
as collaborators in identifying needs and services, there is reciprocity
and equity in the relationship. Professionals are welcoming, and
families will participate.
IDEA requires that students be invited to their IEP meetings if
a purpose of the meeting will be the consideration of transition
services. Many youth still do not attend their IEP meetings or seem
disinterested. Families may be hesitant to have their sons and daughters
at the meetings. What can be done to increase students’ involvement
and active participation in the whole transition process?
Wehmeyer and Ward (1995) describe student involvement in the transition
process as the heart of good transition services. The involvement
of students increases ownership of their plans and responsibilities
for carrying out their own wishes and dreams. Many of the current
educational reform initiatives focus on outcome-oriented results,
and literature supports the evidence that youth who are actively
engaged and feel a sense of control over their lives have better
outcomes as adults (Field, Martin, Miller, Ward, & Wehmeyer,
When students are involved, they have opportunities to learn about
their strengths and skills, as well as their disabilities and their
impact on learning, careers, relationships, and independence. They
can also learn about the accommodations they will need at a job,
in further education, in relationships, and more. Speaking up for
themselves is vital for success in adult environments.
In order for adults to fully engage youth in the assessment, planning,
and the follow-through process, teens must believe that they are
heard, that adults will respect them and have high expectations
for them, that they will support their needs and let them take risks
and fail, and that they will look at them as people in multiple
environments. Youth will benefit from classes in student-led IEPs
or self-determination, but they must also have experiences and opportunities
in many settings that allow them this leadership role (Furney &
The National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities
(NICHCY) offers some suggestions for beginning this process in their
Student's Guide Set 1
(http://nichcy.org/publications#lets) which includes A Student’s
Guide to the IEP and Technical Assistance Guide, Helping Students
Develop Their IEPs (Note: These guides have not been reviewed
by the U.S. Department of Education, OSEP, for consistency with
the IDEA Amendments of 1997 and the final implementing regulations).
Some of NICHCY’s suggestions include:
- Use a structured tool (NICHCY has audiotapes and booklets for
students, parents, and teachers);
- Photocopy each student’s IEP;
- Read through the IEP and identify sensitive issues. Many teens
have never read any assessment information, and this could be
the first time that they are hearing their diagnosis and any test
results. Make sure there is time to let them process the information
and express their feelings;
- Inform parents about student involvement and how their child
will be reading their assessment and IEP information. This can
be a challenge for parents who may have tried to keep this information
hidden in order to protect their child from the “bad”
news. Invite parents to be part of this process and to work with
their child at home to talk about their future plans and ask questions
about their disability;
- Prepare any worksheets or materials that are appropriate to
the level of disability. Some youth with more significant disabilities
may need or want more visual ways to learn about themselves and
express their wishes for the future;
- Ask students how they think they learn and what things are
difficult for them;
- Talk about disabilities in terms that are specifically related
- Inform students of their rights under the law and also the
intent of the law (to support their successful transition to adulthood
and quality of life);
- Discuss accommodations as they relate to learning, job skills,
social skills, and independent living skills;
- Discuss transition and its importance in planning for their
- Practice the IEP meeting and role-play with a group of students.
Part of healthy development includes a sense of self, a sense of
purpose and usefulness, a sense of achievement and independence,
and a sense of belonging and caring. Involving students not only
in the IEP meeting, but also with the entire process can help instill
these essential components for healthy adult outcomes.
Who else should be invited to participate in transition planning
IDEA requires that in addition to parents, the child, and school
personnel, that other agency representatives participate in the
transition planning process as needed. At age 16, or younger, if
appropriate, the student must be invited along with representatives
of any other agency that is likely to be responsible for providing
or paying for transition services.
Outside agency representatives who could be invited to the IEP
meeting may include:
- rehabilitation counselor
- county social worker
- employment agency staff (day training and habilitation DTH)
- independent living center staff
- disability support staff from a postsecondary educational or
- person knowledgeable about assistive technology
- person knowledgeable about financial benefits such as Supplemental
Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid or Medical Assistance (MA)
- personal care or health care providers, including mental health
- probation officer or teacher from a juvenile justice center
- community park and recreation staff, and
- transportation agency staff
Families may invite an advocate from an advocacy organization to
assist them with interpreting information and follow along.
If an agency does not send a representative, the public agency
shall take other steps to obtain participation of the agency. If
a participating agency fails to provide a transition service that
was agreed upon, the IEP team must reconvene to explore alternative
ways of meeting those needs or revise the IEP.
Each agency or service provider generally has a different set of
criteria for eligibility and often has a waiting list for services.
Families can become overwhelmed with the amount of information and
paperwork required for application and follow-through. Part of transition
planning can address those issues and identify whom families can
call on for support and coordination. It can be very beneficial
to the whole team if one person is identified as the single point
of contact and service coordinator for the family and other team
The following sources were cited in this Frequently Asked Questions.
For additional research and resources, see our links to other pages
on this topic below.
Promise Alliance. Retrieved
Blum, R., McNeely, C., & Reinhart, P. (2002). Improving the odds: The untapped power to improve the health of
teens. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Adolescent Health and Development,
University of Minnesota.
Carnegie Corporation of New York, (1995). Great
transitions: Preparing adolescents for a new century. Retrieved
Center for Youth Development and Policy Research.
What is Youth Development?
Retrieved from http://cyd.aed.org/whatis.html
Ferber, T., Pittman, K., & Marshall, T. (2002). Helping all youth to grow up fully prepared and fully engaged. Takoma
Park, MD: The Forum for Youth Investment.
Field, S., Martin, J., Miller, R., Ward, M., & Wehmeyer,
M. (1998). A practical guide for teaching self determination.
Reston, VA: Council for Exceptional Children.
Furney, K., & Salembier, G. (2000). Rhetoric
and reality: A review of the literature on parent and student participation
in the IEP and transition planning process. Issues Influencing the
Future of Transition Programs and Services in the United States.
Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota, Institute on Community
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 34 C.F.R. § 300.347, § 300.29 (1997).
Simpson, A. (2001). Raising teens: A synthesis
of research and a foundation for action. Boston:
Center for Health Communication, Harvard School of Public Health.
Storms, J., O’Leary, E., & Williams, J. (2000). Transition
requirements: A guide for states, districts, schools, universities
and families. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota,
Institute on Community Integration.
University of Minnesota Extension Service. (1999). Keys to quality
youth development. Retrieved from http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/youthdevelopment/DA6715.html
Wehmeyer, M. & Ward, M. (1995). The spirit
of the IDEA mandate: Student involvement in transition planning.
Journal of Vocational Special Needs Education, 17, 108-111.
Other pages on this topic:
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