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National Center on Secondary Education and Transition: Creating opportunities for youth with disabilities to achieve successful futures.

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Adaptations and Accommodations for Students with Disabilities (2001)
This resource list was developed by the National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities.

Association on Higher Education And Disability (AHEAD)
Association of policymakers and disability support services providers in US and international higher education settings. Web site aims to promote the full participation of and quality of services received by persons with disabilities in higher education.

GAO Report: Improved Federal Enforcement Needed to Better Protect Students' Rights to Testing Accommodations (2011)
Standardized tests are often required to gain admission into postsecondary schools or to obtain professional certifications. Federal disability laws, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) require entities that administer these tests to provide accommodations, such as extended time or changes in test format, to students with disabilities. The U.S. Government Accountability Office (GAO) examined: the types of accommodations individuals apply for and receive and how schools assist them, factors testing companies consider when making decisions about requests for accommodations, challenges individuals and testing companies experience in receiving and granting accommodations, and how federal agencies enforce compliance with relevant disability laws and regulations. GAO recommended that the Department of Justice develop a strategic approach to enforcement by analyzing its data and updating its technical assistance manual, and Justice agreed with GAO’s recommendation.

NCEO Online Accommodations Bibliography
The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) Web site allows users to search a compilation of empirical research studies on the effects of various testing accommodations.

NCEO Topic: Accommodations
NCEO topics include the following sections: Overview, FAQs, State Policies, and Publications and Resources.

NCEO Topic: Accommodations for English Language Learners with Disabilities
NCEO topics include the following sections: Overview, FAQs, State Policies, and Publications and Resources.

PARA Accessible Reading Assessment Reports
The Partnership for Accessible Reading Assessment (PARA) engaged in research on and development of accessible reading assessments to provide a valid demonstration of reading proficiency for increasingly diverse populations of students in public schools, and particularly for students with disabilities that affect reading. This page provides links to a series of reports examining the accessibility of reading assessments in relation to students with disabilities.

For Youth with Disabilities

ACT Assessment Services for Students with Disabilities
Information for students with disabilities about application procedures and eligibility procedures for extended time and special testing accommodations.

College Board Services for Students with Disabilities
Testing procedures in which students with documented disabilities use a common eligibility form to request accommodations for AP, PSAT/NMSQT, and SAT tests.

Getting Accommodations at College Tip Sheet
The Transitions RTC has produced a tip sheet outlining the supports and services colleges are required to offer students with mental health challenges. The Transitions RTC focuses on supports for youth and young adults, ages 14-30, with serious mental health conditions who are trying to complete their schooling and training and move into work, but these strategies are relevant to students with other disabilities. Available in pdf (364 KB, 1 p.).

National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA): Disability Access to Sports

New York State Commission on Quality of Care for the Mentally Disabled
Online articles from the Commission’s newsletters on disabilities awareness written by high school students. Topics include testing and classroom accommodations, and assistive technology. (Search this page for the word "newsletter" to locate these newsletters.)

Print Products

Vaughn, S. R., & Bos, C. S. (2011). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems (8th ed.). Prentice Hall.
Covers adaptations and accommodations that can be implemented by teachers (e.g., listener-friendly lectures, textbook adaptations, class assignments, test adaptations, portfolios, and scheduling).

Council for Exceptional Children (2000). Making assessment accommodations: A toolkit for educators. Reston, VA. #P5376. Training materials include a videotape on the uses of accommodations in state and district-wide assessments, guide for principals, a staff-developer's guide, and a pamphlet for families in English and Spanish. Available in hard copy. Order online at

Elliott, J. L., & Thurlow, M. L. (2000). Improving test performance of students with disabilities on state and district assessments. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Elliott, J. (2000). Accommodations: Making the instruction and assessment connection. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directors of Special Education. Running Time: 90 minutes. [Videotape; also available as an audiotape.] Product ID: VNA-022. Highlights practical decisions and uses of accommodations. Specifically, discussion focuses on the use of accommodations in instruction, classroom testing, and state and school district assessments.

Nolet, V., & McLaughlin, M. J. (2000). Accessing the general curriculum: Including students with disabilities in standard-based reform. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

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This page was last updated on November 29, 2017.