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Teleconference Transcript

Transcript of NCSET teleconference call held on September 17, 2002


Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR): Improving Reading Comprehension Skills

Presented by:

Joseph A. Dimino, Ph.D., Research Associate
Instructional Research Group, Long Beach, CA

Erica Simon, Research Associate
Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX

Sharon Vaughn, Ph.D., Professor
College of Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX


DR. CLAPPER: My name is Ann Clapper, and I’m an associate director of the National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, headquartered here at the University of Minnesota. On behalf of our center, I’d like to welcome all of you to this month’s teleconference.

The topic of today’s teleconference is Collaborative Strategic Reading model, and we’re fortunate to have three people with us today who have extensive experience with the CSR model, not only in the design and development of the model, but also in how it’s being implemented in classrooms across the United States.

For today’s call, we have Dr. Sharon Vaughn, who is a professor of education at the University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Vaughn was instrumental, of course, in the design and the development of the CSR model. We have Dr. Joe Dimino, who is a professional development coordinator, who has worked extensively with CSR in helping general and special education teachers on incorporating research based instructional strategies into their classrooms. And we also have Erica Simon with us. Erica is a former special education middle school teacher, who taught CSR for many years and who’s currently a research associate with the Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts.

The format for today’s call will be as follows. We’ll ask Dr. Vaughn to begin. She’s going to be providing us with an overview of the CSR model -- its critical elements and, basically, the research that’s been done that supports this model. Then Dr. Dimino will be talking more about how CSR is actually taught and the training strategies that he uses with regular and special education teachers. Then we’re going to move into Erica’s portion of the call, and Erica will be talking about suggestions for implementing CSR in the classroom. She’s going to be able to share with us some student success stories as well. After Erica’s portion of the teleconference, we’ll also entertain questions at that time. And at the end of the call, I will give you some information about Web sites that you can access, as well as a book on CSR that is available. So without further ado, I’d like for Dr. Sharon Vaughn to begin. Dr. Vaughn?

DR. VAUGHN: Thank you for that introduction, and thanks to all of you for joining us today. Let me give you just an overview of CSR, or collaborative strategic reading. The first big idea with collaborative strategic reading is to think about what collaborative means. With respect to this particular strategy, it refers to the fact that students are working together, either in pairs or small groups. And, usually, when students are in the young grades, like second-graders and third-graders, they need to be either in pairs or very, very small groups. And as students get older -- that is the upper elementary grades, middle school and high school -- and most of you are probably secondary teachers -- they work more successfully in group sizes of three to five. So that’s the collaborative part of Collaborative Strategic Reading.

Now the strategic reading part is an assembly of strategies, that have been proven through research, to be associated with improved outcomes in reading comprehension, particularly reading comprehension as it relates to expository text. For most of you teachers, that would mean the kind of text that you use to gather information, like in social studies and science, or else information books that you might be using for English or literature classes. Now when I say research suggests that these strategies are the most effective, this is research that’s been conducted over 25 years, with numerous investigators, that have really highlighted these four practices. And what we’ve done with collaborative strategic reading is taken these four strategies and organized them in a way that has made sense to teachers and has been something that has been productive for them to use with their students.

So, as a brief overview of these strategies, the first one is Preview, and Preview is something that you do before the students read. And when students Preview a strategy before they read, they scan the material. They search for clues, and they integrate what they already know -- that is their previous knowledge -- with what they anticipate that they’re going to read about. Previewing generates interest in the text, and it stimulates background knowledge that’s associated with what they’re reading. It also provides students with an opportunity to make informed predictions about what they’re going to learn and encourages active reading of a text. My guess is that most of you think about some aspect of Previewing before you ask students to read right now.

Now while students are reading -- that is they’re now working in their small groups or pairs -- they are going to implement two strategies that you will have previously taught them. These two strategies are “Click and Clunk” and “Get the Gist”. When they use Click and Clunk and Get the Gist in their small group, they are reading the same text and, basically, with each paragraph -- or if the paragraphs are short, every couple of paragraphs -- they apply both of these strategies. Let me tell you how they work. Click and Clunk is basically a name of a strategy that’s associated with self-monitoring -- while you read, and determining whether or not you understand challenging words or concepts. So, for example, as you’re reading along, if you bump into a word and you don’t know what it means, or you don’t understand it, we would call that clunk. And we really ask students to pay a lot of attention to the words that they don’t understand, because these are words that inhibit their both acquiring information from text and understanding what they mean.

We also teach students to do things like re-read the sentence with the clunk and look for key ideas to help them figure out the word or read sentences before and after clunks to make sure they can figure out what it means. So in addition to recognizing that they have clunks, we want students to be able to implement fix-up strategies, so that they can, if you will, de-clunk words.

So what’s this other strategy that they use while they read? If they Clunk -- or Click and Clunk -- then the second strategy they use while they’re reading is Get the Gist. What do we mean by Get the Gist? Well, basically, we’re referring to the main idea, which most of you probably teach already. Now when I was teaching, I remember that when I tried to ensure that students understood what the main idea was, my great idea for that was to say, “What’s the main idea?”. That wasn’t a very successful strategy. A much better way to teach students to Get the Gist, or get the main idea, is to ask them to think about what the most important –person, thing, place,or item is that the particular paragraph is about.

Secondly, ask students to think about what the critical features are of that person, place or thing, so that when they combine that together in a sentence, they really have the gist of that paragraph, or couple of paragraphs. The last strategy -- the fourth one -- is one that occurs after students read text. So, as I said earlier, prior to reading, they Preview the entire text. During reading, they Click and Clunk and Get the Gist, sort of paragraph by paragraph. So they do that multiple times while they’re reading. At the end of reading the text, they Wrap Up, in which they think about the most significant ideas in the passages they’ve read, and they try to put together the kinds of questions that a good teacher might ask.

So it really includes two steps -- generating and answering questions about the passage, and reviewing what was learned. So the kinds of questions that students might ask are: how were blank and blank the same, what do you think would happen if, what do you think caused, or issues like that. Now it may be kind of hard to imagine putting all this together in a way in which students could use it in a small group, and you, as the teacher, might move from group to group and assist them. But over time, particularly if you teach the strategies individually and give students practice, they do learn how to assemble them. And Joe and Erica will tell you more about that next.

Let me just answer one other question you might have. And that is has there been any research on collaborative strategic reading, and how do I know if it would work with my students? With respect to research, there have been eight published studies on collaborative strategic reading, and all of these studies have included students with learning disabilities and low achieving students. The effect sizes for collaborative strategic reading -- that means comparing collaborative strategic reading with either a contrast group of students who were not participating, or pre- to post-test effects for a treatment group, yield moderate to high effects.

So the effect sizes range from about .44 to 1.18, and those would be considered solid, effect sizes. Meaning it gives you confidence that you can use it. That’s a very brief overview of collaborative strategic reading. There are many other components, such as the learning log, that helps students record their gists and their wrap-ups, so that the teacher can monitor their performance in the group, and these are available on our Web site, which I think Ann will probably tell you about later on. Thank you very much.

DR. CLAPPER: Thank you, Sharon. Yes, I will be providing participants with information about your Web site, as well as information about the new book that’s available on the collaborative strategic reading model. We’ve set aside this portion of our call today for questions, if there are some clarifying questions that participants on the call would like to ask at this time.

STEVE: This is Steve in Alabama.

DR. CLAPPER: Welcome. Do you have a question for Sharon?

STEVE: Yes. I’d -- when you -- when the student finds a clunk, one of the things that you’re asking them to do, it seems, is look for context clues, and you only referred to it in very general terms. Do you, in this program, teach the students, especially in the higher grades, specific kinds of context clues, such as synonyms and antonyms and restatements and so forth? Or do you just always say read the sentence before and after?

DR. VAUGHN: Thank you so much for clarifying that, Steve. That’s an important question. And related to that question is what occurs when the student can’t read the word, because we know, don’t we Steve, that there are some students whose problems aren’t understanding what the word means. They’re really decoding the word. So, first of all, let me just specify that if the student has trouble decoding the word, that we believe that they should have an acquired decoding strategy, but collaborative strategic reading does not teach those, though we value them and think they’re important.

Secondly, related to your question, we really teach four different fix-up strategies, and the use of context clues is only one or two of them. We do teach children to break words into parts, much as you suggested -- looking at prefixes and suffixes -- but also breaking them into syllables and looking for, if you will, meaningful parts of the word that would help them unlock its meaning.

DR. CLAPPER: Thank you, Sharon, and thank you, Steve, for that question. Are there other questions? Well, let’s move on to Joe. Joe, if you’d like to share with us some information about the teaching strategies and some of the things that your experience has provided you in working with CSR.

DR. DIMINO: Well, teaching the strategies can be challenging. Some are a little bit easier than others. For example, the Preview is pretty easy, because I think a lot of teachers are doing the Preview. What we use is what we call “explicit comprehension instruction”. This is a vehicle [in which] students can learn metacognitive knowledge and the self-regulation skills they need to comprehend the text well. And, of course, everybody’s heard of metacognition. It’s thinking about your thinking.

We have designed explicit comprehension instruction. The lesson plans in the book are designed that way. What we use is “scaffolded instruction”, which is part of the research that Vigotsky did years ago, and it involves thinking aloud, which I’ll talk about. Scaffolding is a process that enables the students to solve a problem or achieve a goal that they couldn’t accomplish on their own. So the teacher works on skills that are emerging in the student’s repertoire, and, slowly, over time, through modeling the thinking process aloud, the students become more familiar and more facile with it.

We’ve taken scaffolded instruction, and we have three phases of it to get students to the point where they are independent. The first phase is the modeling phase, where the teacher models each step of the strategy while thinking aloud. The second phase is the teacher-assisted phase, where the teacher guides the students through the strategy. And I’m going to give you an example of this -- using the Click and Clunk strategy. The third phase is the independent phase, where the students actually complete the strategy on their own. They become independent enough that they’re able to do it.

I want to talk a little bit about thinking aloud. There’s been a lot of research that shows that sometimes adults have trouble thinking aloud for students, and I believe the reason for that is that we’re al well-educated, good readers, and when we are reading a book, we draw inferences in our head. And if someone were to ask you, “Well, how did you do that,” sometimes you just say, “Well, I don’t know. I did it.” And that’s because we’re so automatic, because we’re educated, and we’re good readers and good comprehenders. So a lot of times, teachers have trouble thinking out loud for kids. So that’s one thing that we have to try to do, and I’m going to kind of show you how to do that.

I want to just mention one study that was done several years ago by Delores Durkin to underscore this point of thinking aloud. She actually observed 11,500 minutes of reading instruction. And what she was looking for was how much explicit reading comprehension instruction was there. And out of those 11,500 minutes, she saw only 45 minutes that were allocated to explicit reading comprehension instruction. And one of the things that she did look at was how teachers taught main idea, and, going back to what Sharon said earlier. The teacher said, “Well, so what’s the main idea?” And there was no explicit instruction on how to come up with that main idea.

Recently, Michael Presley did some research and showed the same things. Kids who are in classrooms with explicit reading comprehension instruction did much better on tests, high-stakes tests and assignments than students who didn’t have explicit reading comprehension instruction.

So how do we do this? Well, what we do in the book is that we infuse metacognition instruction into the explicit strategy instruction, and we do that by planning the lessons around four critical questions. And those are: What is the strategy? When is the strategy used? Why is it important to use the strategy? and How do you perform that strategy? The purpose is so that students become automatic. So if you take the students through the scaffolded instruction -- through the three phases -- and they become automatic, the comprehension improves.

For example, if you teach the child the Click and Clunk strategy, and they have to waste a lot of their mental energy on thinking, “OK. We have four fix-up strategies here. Gee, I really can’t remember what the first one is,” that’s going to kind of impede their comprehension. So through the scaffolded instruction, by the time they get to the independent phase, they know the strategies. So when they come to a clunk, they can immediately say, “OK. The first one is I need to read the sentence that the clunk is in and, then, go through the process.”

So the scaffolded instruction fosters automaticity. If you’re automatic in knowing what the strategies are and when you need to use them and how you need to use them, then you’re going to have more mental energy left for comprehending. So let me just kind of quickly walk you through the Click and Clunk strategy. And I want to say that we’re training some high school teachers in collaborative strategic reading here in southern California, and sometimes that term Click and Clunk doesn’t quite work you know, the kids in the high school think it’s a little babyish. I don’t know about your experience Sharon, but it’s been mine. So we were kind of thinking of another title for it, and since I’m now living in southern California, I came up with the term “Cruise Control and SIG Alert”. And so if you’re on cruise control, and you’re reading, everything’s really great. But then when there’s an accident on the freeway, and they stop the traffic, it’s called an SIG Alert. So when you come to a word you don’t know, you’ve stopped. It’s like -- it’s a clunk. You’ve stopped traffic, and you need to figure that out, so you can get back on cruise control again. And it seems like the older students in high school kind of like that, rather than the “Click and Clunk”.

Getting back to just an example of how you would use the Click -- the scaffolded instruction for Click and Clink, the first thing you would do in the modeling phase is you would tell the students what the strategy is. You know, it’s called Click and Clunk, and you tell them what a click is and what a clunk is. And then you tell them when they would use the strategy and that they’re going to use it while they’re reading and that they’re going to stop after every paragraph. Tell them why it’s important add -- it’s important because they’re going to become better readers. It’s going to help them understand the text better and help them complete assignments easier and faster and things like that. And then you would go into the actual modeling of how the strategy is performed. And what you would do is start in their text and choose a clunk, a word that I’m pretty sure they don’t know and that you can use the four fix-up strategies to figure out the word.

At first it’s a little bit artificial, but I’ve done this many, many, many times, and, as time goes on, as you go through your process, it just becomes more and more natural. But as I tell teachers, you have to start somewhere. And if you have to start with a little bit of a contrived word or whatever, it still works, because they get the idea, and they go on from there. So you would model, think aloud and use the fix-up strategies. Go through the first fix-up strategy -- think aloud. Does that help you? If it does help, you figure out the word, how did it help you? If it doesn’t, go to the second fix up strategy and so on and so on, thinking aloud all the time, until you find the fix-up strategy that helps you. And then what you’ll do is you’ll stay in this phase -- this modeling phase -- until you feel -- your professional judgment tells you the kids are ready to move on to the teacher-assisted phase.

As the late Madeline Hunter said, “We, as teachers, make 4,000 decisions a day.” This is just one of those decisions that you’re going to have to make, and you know your students well, and you know when to go on to the teacher-assisted phase. So when you get to the teacher-assisted phase, what you want to do is you want to make the students know these strategies off the tip of their tongue. So I always recommend that you start with questions. Ask them: “What does it mean when you’re clicking while you’re reading?; What is a clunk or an SIG Alert?; What are the four fix-up strategies?” This review during the teacher-assisted phase just takes a few minutes, and, as they get better and better at it, it actually takes seconds. I’ve done it.

So you want to make sure that you ask those questions so they become facile in what they’re going to do when they run into a word that they don’t know. And then you’re going to read a paragraph together. You’re going to tell them what the clunk is, and, then, as a class you’re going to have a discussion. You’re going to say, “What’s the first thing you do? Well, you read the sentence with the clunk in it. Good. Does that help anybody?” Then you take volunteers. Research shows that when kids think aloud for kids, it’s much more effective than when we do it. So as time goes on during this teacher-assisted phase, it’s just going to become a class activity. Once you figure out what the clunk means, then they all write it out in their learning log. You have to use you teacher judgment when you think that the kids have gotten to the point where they could do it on their own. And then they’re into the independent phase. And this is the lesson design for all of the strategies -- the Preview, Click and Clunk, Get the Gist, and Wrap Up. So I think I’ll stop there.

DR. CLAPPER: Thank you, Joe. Are there questions from participants for Joe?

MARIAN: I’m Marian from Alabama. The secondary students are a situation in and of themselves, and the difficulty of embarrassing a student, identifying the struggling reader, identifying the problems is something that we’re really not trained in doing. We’ve always assumed that the elementary people were going to take care of it. So the students just -- you know, they begin to take on the characteristics of someone who simply doesn’t care -- doesn’t want to be there. Do you have any strategies for identifying students as struggling readers that will not pull the classroom teacher out of a classroom of 33 other teenagers?

DR. DIMINO: Can you clarify—tell me a little bit more.

MARIAN: Well, I’m in a teacher training program, and if we have folks going into the classroom, and they’ve had maybe a two-hour class in reading in the content areas, I’m finding that they’re surprised that they might run across students who don’t read well. And, you know, in the two hour block of time that I have, I have to teach them not only what the strategies are -- and, you know, I want to do it. It’s important to me. But I also have to give them the answers to those questions, such as what do we do with the other students while we’re finding out what’s wrong with this one, in terms of his reading skills.

DR. DIMINO: So you’re looking for an assessment device, or what to do with the other students, or ...

MARIAN: Well, sort of. Here’s my question. Is there a formalized process? Do you know, when you get a 10th-grader, that he’s a non-reader or a struggling reader?

DR. DIMINO: Well, I think it depends on the school. If you’re in a school long enough, you know who the students are who are having trouble, and who’s not. I mean, teachers can look in cumulative files and see if there’s IPs and look at their ...

MARIAN: OK. I’m concerned with my new teachers going out into the field who haven’t been in a school at all and don’t know anything about the students. And the characteristics of the teenager and the adolescent tend to be -- you know, everything sort of folds together. If you give characteristics of the struggling reader, you’re also giving characteristics of a child who is undergoing depression or a child who has behavior problems or something like that. And I wondered if you had addressed that front end of it, where you’re identifying the child as actually having a reading problem. That’s a bigger question for my students right now than what do I do with them when I find them. It’s how do I find them.

DR. DIMINO: Well, you know, we don’t -- I don’t do that. I mean, CSR doesn’t do that. What CSR does do is when you -- as Sharon mentioned, you put them in small groups. And for the students who are having trouble reading, when they work together in groups, there is one person who volunteers to read the paragraph aloud, so that what happens in CSR is they’re in small groups. And so there are a variety of abilities in that group. OK. So it’s a heterogeneous group. And so the child who’s having trouble reading can still learn the content, because the way the structure of the group is that the leader will say “Who would like to read?” The student who can’t read is actually listening and following along while one of the readers in the group is reading.

So they can pick up the content. And, also, the way CSR is structured is that the students are helping each other. So if after they read a paragraph, if someone has a clunk -- let’s say this child who doesn’t read well has a clunk. Then they work as a team. The way it’s structured, the leader will say, “Does anybody here know the meaning of that clunk?” And if nobody knows, then the clunk expert works that group through the four fix-up strategies to help come up with a reasonable definition. So the student who is -- who has trouble reading is actually being guided through this. And then they write everything on a learning log, so that they have something to study from. And a lot of times what we tell teachers is you can take someone in the group who has a really great learning log and has good penmanship and stuff. And we Xerox that for students who don’t read well to help them study for tests and things like that. But CSR does not include a device to figure out who can read, and who can’t read. It’s not an assessment. There’s not an assessment component, if that’s what she’s looking for.

DR. CLAPPER: I think another issue that Marian was bringing up too was the preparation of pre-service teachers-- they arrive on the doorstep of schools and, maybe, [are] not prepared to teach reading. They’re prepared to teach content but aren’t quite sure what to do when students can’t access the content because of poor reading skills. So, Joe, you do a lot of training, though, in terms of in-service training -- do you not -- to help general education teachers to use these strategies, for example, in a high school social studies class or ...

DR. DIMINO: Right. Right. And I think -- you know, not to get off the subject, but I think this is an issue that needs to be worked on in higher education -- that things have changed in education these days, and the people who are being prepared to be secondary teachers need to have maybe two [or]three classes on how to teach reading—it’s not happening, because I think we’re using an old system of teaching -- training teachers for secondary education.

DR. CLAPPER: Right. And I think another point that Marian made was the fact that the assumption was that by the time you got them in high school -- as a high school teacher -- you would think that they might have those skills. And some of them, for whatever reason, are finding their way into high school -- these students without those skills. So I think, really, our responsibility is once we know that the students don’t have the skills, we need to recognize that somewhere along the line, they just acquire them. But it’s not giving up, it doesn’t sound like. There are schools you’re working with, and others across the United States have said, “OK. They may not have gotten some of these skills earlier, but let’s see if we can’t intervene now, and we can still try to help students get to be better readers, even though they’re in high school.” Would you agree?

DR. DIMINO: Yes.

DR. CLAPPER: I think this, sort of, classroom conversation leads very nicely into Erica. So, Erica, if you’d be willing to share with us some of your experiences in working directly with the CSR model at the classroom level.

MS. SIMON: Thank you. And I have a few suggestions for implementing CSR in the classroom. Most of my suggestions come from my experience teaching struggling readers, using the strategies. I’m also going to share some of the benefits of CSR instruction, and these benefits come from my personal experiences with CSR and also from working with other teachers that I’ve talked to and worked with as part of CSR workshops. And I have a couple of student success stories, if we have time for them.

I think that before beginning the process of CSR, there are a couple of things that you can do to make the process go more smoothly for students, and this, as Joe was talking about, when you are doing the modeling of the process, before you go to the teacher-assisted part of CSR. And, that is, I found it important to, when introducing a new topic, before they even begin the previewing, to spark students’ interest and show them the relevance of what they’re going to be reading about by relating the new topic to previous lessons, students’ life experiences and sometimes, maybe, even popular movies. It’s helpful, I think, whenever possible, to use reading material that you know is of interest and personal relevance to your students too. And this is particularly important with my secondary students.

Also, I found success when I began to teach CSR with shorter passages, so that they can learn the process of how to use the strategies before moving to longer passages. I also liked to teach vocabulary explicitly before they began. So knowing that there were going to be words that they clicked and clunked on, I think that, with my students -- the struggling readers -- I also needed to choose several words from the passage that I knew students would have difficulty with and that were critical to the passage’s content and teach those before beginning a new CSR lesson. And I made sure that there were still going to be words that I knew they would be able to use the Click and Clunk strategies with.

I also liked to sometimes brainstorm as a class, as a part of the previewing process, and have students try, as a group, to use semantic mapping to help students understand a new topic or related topics during brainstorming, so that they can relate this understanding that they have about related topics to the new topic. And while we were having these class discussions, I tried to continuously rephrase, restate and elaborate on students’ thoughts and ideas to help clarify them for everyone -- so trying to make sure that a student’s ideas are validated but, also, to make it clear for the rest of the class.

I also used a timer during each phase of the process to help keep my students focused and on task, particularly when I first started implementing CSR in the classroom. And I have had students report that they liked CSR, because they liked being able to help other people in their group, and they liked the feeling of being the expert even for the day. And even more powerful were the students who said that they used the strategies to help them understand books that were above their level -- for example, in their general ed science and social studies classes.

I had one student, in particular, I can think of who really likes the Click and Clunk portion of the strategy. He said that sometimes when he gets stuck on words, and the teacher can’t help him, or the teacher would just tell him to sound it out, the Click and Clunk steps gave him strategies to use when a word can’t be sounded out. And I think one of the callers’ questions had to do with that earlier. I also saw a big change in the students’ reading behavior. I think that when you’re using CSR, there’s more student reading going on in the classroom than usual. And I saw my students become a lot more confident in their reading ability. I think part of this was due to the classroom climate. It became OK in the classroom to clunk on a word -- in other words, make a mistake or run across an unfamiliar word, because it was expected that each group would have at least one or two clunks per passage. And if they didn’t then that let me know that their passage was not at an appropriate reading level.

And so it became acceptable to make a mistake, as long as it was corrected, and the group would help you correct that. So it gives some of the lower readers a chance to see that even good readers sometimes have unfamiliar words that they run across when they’re reading or -- we call them clunks. And it also give students strategies to use when they’re encountering unfamiliar words, rather than just asking someone or skipping the word, which is what I was seeing students frequently do, before we started using the strategies.

I think that earlier, Joe and Sharon were talking about what you do as a Wrap Up at the end of CSR. And one of the things is to have students ask questions that they think a teacher would ask about the passage that they’ve read. And this is where I saw students generating questions that stimulate higher-level thinking. The way that I scaffolded their learning this way was to provide them with question stems. And I took some of the examples that Sharon gave you earlier. I borrowed these question stems and created a poster out of them, so that when students were creating questions at the end of the lesson, they used the poster to give them ideas for which questions to ask.

At the end of the year, we were videotaping a CSR lesson, and I had one student who was reading at the beginning of the year about four grade levels below. And during the videotaping, he kind of surprised everyone The passage we were reading was about an ancient leader -- a king from ancient Africa or ancient Ghana. And he looked at the camera and everyone else, and he askedhow would you compare and contrast Montsamusa who was the name of the leader, and Bill Clinton, who was the president at the time. And I think that for him to make that connection between two leaders [from] two different countries –was, at least for him, in this class, a demonstration of more higher-level thinking than what he had been doing in the past. So with that, I’m just going to stop and see if anyone has any questions, because it looks like I’m almost running over my time.

DR. CLAPPER: Thank you, Erica. Are there questions for Erica? We can also take questions for Joe or Sharon as well. If there are no questions, let me point you in the direction of a couple of Web sites that might be helpful. One Web site address that I’d like to give you is the National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, at www.ncset.org. Another Web site you might find helpful is one for the Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts. And that address is http://www.texasreading.org/utcrla/. And I might also mention that the book that’s been referenced throughout the course of this call is one that is entitled, “From Clunk to Click: Collaborative Strategic Reading”, with a copyright of 2001. And, actually, if you would like information about the book, you may want to visit the publisher’s Web site, and that’s Sopris West, and the Web site address for Sopris West is www.sopriswest.com.

Well, we’ll bring today’s teleconference to a close then. I’d like to thank, again, Sharon Vaughn and Joe Dimino and Erica Simon for being with us today. On behalf of the National Center on Secondary Education, I’d like to thank our presenters, as well as the folks who were on line today and participating with us. I’d also like to mention that our center’s next monthly teleconference is scheduled for October 16th, and, again, that information will be on our Web site. And the topic of that teleconference is focused on student earned income exclusion. On behalf of our National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, I would thank again, the presenters for being with us today and our participants for joining us. Goodbye.

END OF TELECONFERENCE


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